A reflection attack works when an attacker can send a packet with a forged source IP address. The attacker sends a packet apparently from the intended victim to some server on the Internet that will reply immediately. Because the source IP address is forged, the remote Internet server replies and sends data to the victim.
That has two effects: the actual source of the attack is hidden and is very hard to trace, and, if many Internet servers are used, an attack can consist of an overwhelming number of packets hitting a victim from all over the world.
But what makes reflection attacks really powerful is when they are also amplified: when a small forged packet elicits a large reply from the server (or servers). In that case, an attacker can send a small packet “from” a forged source IP address and have the server (or servers) send large replies to the victim.
Amplification attacks like that result in an attacker turning a small amount of bandwidth coming from a small number of machines into a massive traffic load hitting a victim from around the Internet. Until recently the most popular protocol for amplification attacks was DNS: a small DNS query looking up the IP address of a domain name would result in a large reply.
For DNS the amplification factor (how much larger a reply is than a request) is 8x. So an attacker can generate an attack 8x larger than the bandwidth they themselves have access to. For example, an attacker controlling 10 machines with 1Gbps could generate an 80Gbps DNS amplification attack.
In the past, we’ve seen one attack that used SNMP for amplification: it has a factor of 650x! Luckily, there are few open SNMP servers on the Internet and SNMP usually requires authentication (although many are poorly secured). That makes SNMP attacks relatively rare.
Throw any suspicious file at it and in a matter of seconds Cuckoo will provide you back some detailed results outlining what such file did when executed inside an isolated environment.
Cuckoo is free Open Source software.
Why does this matter?
Malware is the swiss-army knife of cybercriminals and any other adversary to your corporation or organization.
In these evolving times, detecting and removing malware artifacts is not enough: it’s vitally important to understand how they work and what they would do/did on your systems when deployed and understand the context, the motivations and the goals of a breach.
In this way you are able to more effectively understand the incident, respond to it and protect yourself for the future.
There are infinite other contexts where you might need to deploy a sandbox internally, from analyzing an internal breach to proactively scouting wildly distributed threats, collect actionable data and analyzing the ones actively targeting your infrastructure or products.
In any of these cases you’ll find Cuckoo to be perfectly suitable, incredibly customizable and well… free!
I’ve seen this a few times, and it’s a hack worth to share.
Many times, we found ourselves owning a car with a CD player, but no AUX-IN. Who uses CD’s these days, anyway? Noah decided to un-crapify his car audio on a 2001 Ford Focus.
The hack itself is pretty simple. Open up the unit, and you’ll find two separate modules: CD player, and radio/amplifier unit. Both are connected through a flex cable.
Noah was fortunate, since he had taps for each pin, so he didn’t had to solder directly on the plug’s pins. So, he identified ROUT, LOUT and a ground connection, soldered the pins, and he’s ready to go.
Since he tapped on the CD player’s pins, a CD must be inserted in order to trigger the input.
Easy as recording an audio CD without any tunes in int: plain old silence.
So, i have a OWL CM130 wireless energy monitor for keeping an eye on power consumption at home.
It’s a great little gadget, but also a very cheap one: i bought it a few years ago for around 30€ in eBay, but it won’t let me do anything with the data, other than display it.
These usually work in 433MHz band, and i happen to have a 433MHz AM receiver similar to this one: http://ardumarket.com/en/transmisors/transmisor-rf-fs1000a-330-443mhz-arduino-pic-id19.html
In mid-September 2013, the Dell SecureWorks CTU(TM) research team observed a new ransomware malware family called CryptoLocker. Ransomware malware such as Reveton, Urausy, Tobfy, and Kovter has cost consumers considerable time and money over the past several years. Ransomware prevents victims from using their computer normally (e.g., by locking the screen) and uses social engineering to convince victims that failing to follow the malware authors’ instructions will lead to real-world consequences. These consequences, such as owing a fine or facing arrest and prosecution, are presented as being the result of a fabricated indiscretion like pirating music or downloading illegal pornography. Victims of these traditional forms of ransomware could ignore the demands and use security software to unlock the system and remove the offending malware. CryptoLocker changes this dynamic by aggressively encrypting files on the victim’s system and returning control of the files to the victim only after the ransom is paid.
The earliest CryptoLocker samples appear to have been released on the Internet on September 5, 2013. Details about this initial distribution phase are unclear, but it appears the samples were downloaded from a compromised website located in the United States, either by a version of CryptoLocker that has not been analyzed as of this publication, or by a custom downloader created by the same authors. Continue reading “CryptoLocker Ransomware”
This howto uses the Raspberry Pi as the base system (tutorial is based on Debian), and Tor as the SOCKS5 Proxy.
The Objective: be anonymous on the internet, using the Raspberry Pi as a transparent SOCKS 5 proxy.
I didn’t intended this to be a completely exhaustive tutorial, but i feel it’s complete enough for the novice user to follow.
As a bonus, i’ve added info on how to use Tor as a Socks Proxy for your iPhone/iPad – no need to jailbreak.
If in any doubt following this guide, please leave a comment!
Sometimes, you need to anonymize yourself in the internet. Or you’re just paranoid and don’t want to be followed around.
Either way, a proxy is a great way to stay anonymous in the internet.
If you just want to browse around, you can download a full featured package with Tor, and its own stripped down version of Firefox called TorBrowser. There are versions for Linux, OS X, and Windows, and you’re ready to go.
But if you don’t want to install anything in every device you own, or you want to be anonymous on your iPhone or Android device, then, this tutorial is for you.
The vulnerability is horizontal privilege escalation. The PIN reset function – while updating the PIN for the current user – also attaches all the personal data in the POST request. This allows the attacker to tamper with the request, exchanging his username with the victim’s username and setting a new PIN for the victim.